Extracorporeal Resuscitation with Carbon Monoxide Improves Renal Function by Targeting Inflammatory Pathways in Cardiac Arrest in Pigs

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2019 Dec 1;317(6):F1572-F1581

Our data demonstrate improved renal function by extracorporeal CO treatment in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.

Deleterious consequences like acute kidney injury frequently occur upon successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Extracorporeal life support is increasingly used to overcome high cardiac arrest mortality. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous gasotransmitter, capable of reducing renal injury. In our study, we hypothesized that addition of CO to extracorporeal resuscitation hampers severity of renal injury in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Hypoxic cardiac arrest was induced in pigs. Animals were resuscitated using a conventional [cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)], an extracorporeal (E-CPR), or a CO-assisted extracorporeal (CO-E-CPR) protocol. CO was applied using a membrane-controlled releasing system. Markers of renal injury were measured, and histopathological analyses were carried out. We investigated renal pathways involving inflammation as well as apoptotic cell death. No differences in serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were detected after CO treatment compared with Sham animals (Sham 71 ± 7 and CO-E-CPR 95 ± 6 ng/mL), while NGAL was increased in CPR and E-CPR groups (CPR 135 ± 11 and E-CPR 124 ± 5 ng/mL; P < 0.05). Evidence for histopathological damage was abrogated after CO application. CO increased renal heat shock protein 70 expression and reduced inducible cyclooxygenase 2 (CPR: 60 ± 8; E-CPR 56 ± 8; CO-E-CPR 31 ± 3 µg/mL; P < 0.05). Caspase 3 activity was decreased (CPR 1,469 ± 276; E-CPR 1,670 ± 225; CO-E-CPR 755 ± 83 pg/mL; P < 0.05). Furthermore, we found a reduction in renal inflammatory signaling upon CO treatment. Our data demonstrate improved renal function by extracorporeal CO treatment in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. CO reduced proinflammatory and proapoptotic signaling, characterizing beneficial aspects of a novel treatment option to overcome high mortality.