Biomarkers as Predictors of Renal Damage in Neonates Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

Perfusion. 2020 Nov 3. Online ahead of print

In our study, biomarkers did not show any correlation with the appearance of AKI.

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Acute Kidney Injury is a complication in children with heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The aim of this study is to describe the behavior of KIM-1 (Kidney Injury Molecule) and NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin) as early predictors of renal damage, comparing them with serum creatinine and creatinine clearance, in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery.

Twenty-one (21) neonates, under 4 kg, with complex congenital heart diseases, RACHS-1 > 3, without preoperative renal failure, were studied. Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were measured preoperatively and at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours postoperatively. Urinary samples of KIM-1(pg/ml) and NGAL (ng/ml) were collected after induction of anesthesia at 24 and 48 hours post-operatively.

nRIFLE criteria were used to divide cohorts in “NO AKI” (12 patients) and “AKI” (nine patients). In the AKI group, serum creatinine increased significantly and creatinine clearance decreased significantly at 24, 48, and 72 hours compared with their respective baseline values. There was no difference in KIM-1 and NGAL values between patients who developed AKI and those who did not at any measured time.

The deterioration of renal function continues to be one of the most frequent complications in this population. In our study, biomarkers did not show any correlation with the appearance of AKI. It remains to be seen whether this behavior of the biomarkers is linked with the non-consistent release of these types of molecules in immature kidneys. It is likely that a larger panel of biomarkers together with other glomerular filtration rate assessment methods will provide more information about AKI diagnosis.