Toddler Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Are Associated With School-Age IQ in Children With Single Ventricle Physiology

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2019 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]

To examine whether neurodevelopment at preschool age predicts IQ levels and needs for special education services in school-age children with single ventricle (SV) physiology.

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To examine whether neurodevelopment at preschool age predicts IQ levels and needs for special education services in school-age children with single ventricle (SV) physiology. Thirty-five patients with SV physiology were assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) II or III at 3 years and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC) at 8 years. Whether the children were receiving special education services was also determined. Factors associated with the mental developmental index (MDI) of the BSID, the full-scale IQ (FSIQ) of the WISC, and special education services were also analyzed. The MDI and FSIQ of children with SV physiology were significantly lower than the values in healthy children (P < 0.01). The MDI at 3 years was moderately correlated with FSIQ at 8 years (P < 0.01, R2 = 0.41). Ten patients (28.6%) received special education services in their school. Children with MDI <85 were more likely than those with MDI ≥85 to require special education services at school age (53% and 10%, respectively, P < 0.01). Weight at birth and stage II were correlated with the MDI, extracorporeal circulation time at stage II was correlated with FSIQ, and age at Fontan operation was correlated with FSIQ and special education services. The toddler neurodevelopment index may predict not only IQ levels but also the need for special education services in school-age children. Children with low neurodevelopmental scores need to be followed closely for a long time.