Safety of Custodiol Cardioplegia: a Cohort Study in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery with Elongated Aortic Cross-Clamp Time

Perfusion. 2020 Jan 17:267659119897239. doi: 10.1177/0267659119897239. [Epub ahead of print]

Custodiol is a safe method of myocardial protection for patients who underwent mitral valve surgery with coronary artery bypass grafting in our hospital.

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The increasing complexity of patients undergoing cardiac surgery requires extended myocardial ischaemic periods. Cardiac surgeons demand a cardioplegic solution with prolonged myocardial protection. Therefore, we introduced Custodiol in our centre in 2011. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of Custodiol compared with the standard method of cardioplegia.

Between 2011 and 2016, 188 adult patients who underwent mitral valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this retrospective study. In 113 patients, Custodiol cardioplegia was used to achieve cardiac arrest, while St. Thomas Hospital solution was used in 75 patients. The primary endpoint of the study was the degree myocardial damage which was estimated by the measurement of creatine kinase-myocardial band on the first postoperative day. A linear regression analysis was performed to compare the aortic cross-clamp time with the postoperative myocardial damage in both groups.

The extracorporeal circulation time and aortic cross-clamp were significantly longer in the Custodiol group than in the St. Thomas group: 125.6 ± 32.5 minutes versus 93.1 ± 27.7 minutes (p < 0.001), respectively. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the postoperative levels of creatine kinase-myocardial band (96 (70-140) U/L vs. 86 (69-120) U/L, respectively; p = 0.321). There was no significant differences between the two groups regarding the 30-day mortality (6.1% vs. 5.5%, respectively; p = 1.000) or 120-day mortality (9.6% vs. 11.0%, respectively; p = 0.806).

Our findings demonstrate that Custodiol is a safe method of myocardial protection for patients who underwent mitral valve surgery with coronary artery bypass grafting in our hospital. Further investigations extended to more cardiac surgery populations are needed to confirm clinical benefits of Custodiol cardioplegia.