Cardiac surgery is inherently complex and is associated with a high risk of perioperative bleeding. As such, it is responsible for a disproportionate percentage of annual blood product usage in the United States, accounting for approximately 10%-to-15% of total blood transfusions and up to 50% of platelets annually transfused. The transfusion rate within cardiac surgery is highly variable and is dependent on numerous factors, such as type of procedure, patient acuity, institutional norms/protocols, and the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Reports in the literature estimate that 50%-to-65% of all patients undergoing surgery with CPB will require a blood transfusion in the perioperative period.
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