Preoperative Anemia and Transfusion in Cardiac Surgery: A Single-Centre Retrospective Study

J Cardiothorac Surg. 2021 Apr 23;16(1):109

Background

Preoperative anemia and transfusion are associated with worse outcomes. This study aims to identify the prevalence of preoperative anemia, transfusion rates on surgery day, and predictors of transfusion in elective cardiac surgery patients at our centre. We also aim to evaluate our preoperative intervention program, and examine the intervention window for anemia before surgery.

Methods

This study included 797 adult patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery at a tertiary hospital. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of transfusion on surgery day.

Results

Preoperative anemia was present in 15% of patients. Anemic patients had a significantly higher transfusion rate at 53% compared to 10% in non-anemic patients. Hemoglobin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body surface area (BSA), and total cardiopulmonary bypass time were predictive of transfusion on surgery day. Patients had a median of 7 days between initial visit and surgery day, however, referral to the blood conservation clinic was only done for 8% of anemic patients and treatment was initiated in 3% of anemic patients. Among the 3 anemic patients who received treatment, 2 did not require blood transfusion on surgery day.

Conclusions

Preoperative anemia is present in 15% of patients at our centre and these patients have 53% transfusion rates on surgery day. Hemoglobin concentration, eGFR, BSA, and total cardiopulmonary bypass time were predictors of transfusion on surgery day. Patients had a median of 7 days between initial visit and surgery day. Referral and anemia treatment were infrequently initiated in preoperative anemic patient.