Predictors of Increased Lactate in Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: The Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2020 Jun 10. Online ahead of print

These results emphasized the importance of blood pressure management during CPB and the importance of the duration of circulatory arrest.

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Objective

Hyperlactatemia develops intraoperatively during cardiac surgery and is associated with postoperative mortality. This study aimed to determine the factors that lead to an increase in lactate during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery.

Design

Retrospective study from July 2015 to December 2018.

Setting

Academic tertiary children’s hospital.

Participants

The study comprised 376 neonates.

Interventions

No interventions were performed.

Measurements and Main Results

Lactate measurements at prebypass, upon initiation of CPB and before coming off CPB, last in the operating room, and first in the cardiac intensive care unit were collected. The changes in lactate levels were compared using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired data. Univariate and multivariate median regression models of the change during CPB were determined. The cohort characteristics were male (60%), median age 5 days (range 1-30), and weight 3.2 kg (range 1.5-4.7). Most patients had a STAT score of 4 (45%) or 5 (23%). Significant increases in lactate were observed from pre-CPB to start of CPB (p < 0.001) and from start to end of CPB (p < 0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis, duration of circulatory arrest (coefficient = 1.216; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.754-1.678; p < 0.001), duration of mean arterial pressure < 25 mmHg (coefficient = 0.423; 95% CI 0.196-to- 0.651; p < 0.001), and duration of mean arterial pressure between 35 and 39 mmHg (coefficient = –0.246; 95% CI –0.397 to –0.095; p = 0.001) were identified as significant independent predictors of the lactate change per 30- minutes duration.

Conclusion

These results emphasized the importance of blood pressure management during CPB and the importance of the duration of circulatory arrest.