Outcomes after Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Insertion in Cardiac Surgery Patients

Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2020 Oct-Dec;32(4):542-550

Objective

To assess whether preoperative versus intraoperative insertion of an intra-aortic balloon pump is associated with lower 30-day mortality or reduced length of hospital stay among patients who had an intra-aortic balloon pump inserted for cardiac surgery.

Methods

This was an observational study of patients who had an intra-aortic balloon pump inserted in the preoperative or intraoperative period of cardiac surgery in our department between 2000 and 2012. We assessed the association between preoperative versus intraoperative insertion of an intra-aortic balloon pump and 30-day mortality in a multivariable logistic regression analysis, including preoperative New York Heart Association class, postoperative atrial fibrillation, reoperation, postoperative creatinine and isolated coronary bypass grafting as cofactors. We used a multivariate linear model to assess whether a preoperative versus intraoperative intra-aortic balloon pump was associated with length of postoperative hospital stay, adjusting for reoperation, isolated coronary bypass grafting, heart valve surgery, sex, age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross-clamp time, preoperative patients’ status (elective, urgency or emergency surgery) and preoperative myocardial infarction.

Results

Overall, 7,540 consecutive patients underwent open heart surgery in our department, and an intra-aortic balloon pump was inserted pre- or intraoperatively in 322 (4.2%) patients. The mean age was 67 ± 10.2 years old, the 30-day mortality was 12.7%, and the median length of hospital stay was 9 days (7 – 13). Preoperative versus intraoperative intra-aortic balloon pump insertion did not affect the incidence of 30-day mortality (adjusted OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.15 – 3.12; p = 0.63) and length of postoperative hospital stay (β = 5.3; 95%CI, -1.6 to 12.8; p = 0.13).

Conclusion

Preoperative insertion of an intra-aortic balloon pump was not associated with a lower 30-day mortality or reduced length of postoperative hospital stay compared to intraoperative insertion.