Intraoperative Urinary Biomarkers and Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2021 Jun;35(6):1691-1700

Objectives

To evaluate the association of intraoperative urinary biomarker excretion during cardiac surgery and the subsequent development of acute kidney injury (AKI).

Design

Prospective, nonrandomized, observational study.

Setting

Single tertiary-level, university-affiliated hospital.

Participants

Ninety patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Interventions

None.

Measurements and Main Results

Urinary samples were collected every 30 minutes intraoperatively and then at four, 12, and 24 hours after CPB. Samples were measured for interleukin 18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM1), and creatinine concentrations. Urinary biomarker excretion (raw and indexed to creatinine) for four intraoperative and three postoperative points were compared between patients with and those without subsequent AKI defined by increased serum creatinine concentration ≥0.3 mg/dL within the first 48 hours or ≥1.5 times baseline within seven days. Raw and indexed median IL-18 values were similar between AKI groups at all intraoperative points, but became significantly different at 12 hours after CPB. Raw and indexed median KIM1 values were significantly different between AKI groups at multiple intraoperative points and at four and 12 hours after CPB. During intraoperative and postoperative points, patients in the fourth quartile of KIM1 excretion had greater AKI incidence and longer intensive care and hospital lengths of stay than those in the first quartile. Only postoperatively did the differences in these outcomes between the fourth and first quartile of IL-18 excretion occur.

Conclusions

Intraoperative KIM1 but not IL-18 excretion was associated with postoperative development of AKI.