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Increased Glucose Variability Is Associated With Major Adverse Events After Coronary Artery Bypass

Ann Thorac Surg. 2019 Nov;108(5):1307-1313

Increased 24-hour but not 12-hour postoperative GV after CABG is a predictor of poor outcomes. Preoperative HbA1c is not associated with MAEs after adjusting for postoperative mean glucose and GV.

Background

Elevated preoperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a predictor of poor outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), but the role of postoperative glucose variability (GV) is unknown. We hypothesized that short-term postoperative GV is associated with major adverse events (MAEs) after isolated CABG.

Methods

This retrospective study evaluated 2215 patients who underwent isolated CABG from January 2012 to March 2018 at 2 medical centers. Postoperative GV in the first 12 hours and 24 hours was measured by the SD, coefficient of variation, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions. The primary outcome (MAEs) was the composite of postoperative cardiac arrest, pneumonia, renal failure, stroke, sepsis, reoperation, and 30-day mortality. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the independent association of GV with MAE.

Results

A total of 2215 patients met the study criteria, and an MAE developed in 260 patients (11.7%). High 12-hour and 24-hour postoperative GV were associated with elevated HbA1c, insulin-dependent diabetes, renal failure, and nonelective operation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed MAEs were associated with increased mean postoperative glucose in the first 12 hours (odds ratio [OR], 1.013; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.008-1.018; P < .001), the first 24 hours (OR, 1.017; 95% CI, 1.010-1.024; P < .001), and 24-hour postoperative GV (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.09-1.37; P < .001). MAEs were not associated with preoperative HbA1c or 12-hour postoperative GV.

Conclusions

Increased 24-hour but not 12-hour postoperative GV after CABG is a predictor of poor outcomes. Preoperative HbA1c is not associated with MAEs after adjusting for postoperative mean glucose and GV.

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