Effects Of Pulmonary Perfusion During Cardiopulmonary Bypass On Lung Functions After Cardiac Operation

J Card Surg. 2020 Aug 13. Online ahead of print

Pulmonary artery perfusion during aortic cross‐clamping provides better oxygenation and preservation of the wall alveolar integrity after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

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Background

Pulmonary artery perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a known but rarely used technique in adult cardiac surgery. In this study, we aimed to investigate biochemical and histopathological effects of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB on lung functions.

Methods

Between May 2014 and August 2014, all patients (n = 24) who gave informed consent for participating this study with inclusion criteria were included. Patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were sequentially randomized to conventional CPB (control group, n = 12) and conventional CPB with selective pulmonary artery perfusion (study group, n = 12). Lung functions were monitored using PF ratio, alveolar‐arterial oxygen gradient, and lactate levels. A small sample tissue from the left lung was excised for histopathologic examination. Immunocytochemistry analysis was performed using anti‐rabbit polyclonal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), rabbit polyclonal inducible nitric oxide synthase (i‐NOS), and BCL‐2 antibodies.

Results

Postoperative course of the patients were uneventful without any clinical outcome differences in terms of cardiopulmonary complications, ventilation time and hospital stay. Pulmonary perfusion group had significantly better oxygenation values after extubation and at postoperative 24‐hour. Electron microscopy examinations revealed better preservation of the alveolar wall integrity with pulmonary perfusion. The intensity of VEGF, i‐NOS, and BCL‐2 antibody expressions in bronchial epithelial cells were more prominent in the pulmonary perfusion group.

Conclusions

Pulmonary artery perfusion during aortic cross‐clamping provides better oxygenation and preservation of the wall alveolar integrity after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. This technique can be used as a protective strategy to minimize CPB‐induced lung injury in adult cardiac surgery.