Effects of Circulatory Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Cerebral Autoregulation in Neonatal Swine

Pediatr Res. 2021 May 4. Online ahead of print

Background

Cerebral autoregulation mechanisms help maintain adequate cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in cerebral perfusion pressure. Impairment of cerebral autoregulation, during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), may increase risk of neurologic injury in neonates undergoing surgery. In this study, alterations of cerebral autoregulation were assessed in a neonatal swine model probing four perfusion strategies.

Methods

Neonatal swine (n = 25) were randomized to continuous deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (DH-CPB, n = 7), deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA, n = 7), selective cerebral perfusion (SCP, n = 7) at deep hypothermia, or normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (control, n = 4). The correlation coefficient (LDx) between laser Doppler measurements of CBF and mean arterial blood pressure was computed at initiation and conclusion of CPB. Alterations in cerebral autoregulation were assessed by the change between initial and final LDx measurements.

Results

Cerebral autoregulation became more impaired (LDx increased) in piglets that underwent DH-CPB (initial LDx: median 0.15, IQR [0.03, 0.26]; final: 0.45, [0.27, 0.74]; p = 0.02). LDx was not altered in those undergoing DHCA (p > 0.99) or SCP (p = 0.13). These differences were not explained by other risk factors.

Conclusions

In a validated swine model of cardiac surgery, DH-CPB had a significant effect on cerebral autoregulation, whereas DHCA and SCP did not.