Effect of Ulinastatin on Post-operative Blood Loss and Allogeneic Transfusion in Patients Receiving Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass: a Prospective Randomized Controlled Study with 10-year Follow-up

J Cardiothorac Surg. 2020 May 14;15(1):98

Ulinastatin reduced post-operative blood loss and allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion in heart surgery with CPB. The mortality and major morbidity was comparable among the groups shown by the 10-year follow-up.

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Background

Major bleeding and allogeneic transfusion leads to negative outcomes in patients receiving cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Ulinastatin, a urine trypsin inhibitor, relieves systemic inflammation and improves coagulation profiles with however sparse evidence of its effects on blood loss and allogeneic transfusion in this specific population.

Methods

In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 426 consecutive patients receiving open heart surgery with CPB were randomly assigned into three groups to receive ulinastatin (group U, n = 142), tranexamic acid (group T, n = 143) or normal saline (group C, n = 141). The primary outcome was the total volume of post-operative bleeding and the secondary outcome included the volume and exposure of allogeneic transfusion, the incidence of stroke, post-operative myocardial infarction, renal failure, respiratory failure and all-cause mortality. A ten-year follow-up was carried on to evaluate long-term safety.

Results

Compared with placebo, ulinastatin significantly reduced the volume of post-operative blood loss within 24 h (688.39 ± 393.55 ml vs 854.33 ± 434.03 ml MD − 165.95 ml, 95%CI − 262.88 ml to − 69.01 ml, p < 0.001) and the volume of allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion (2.57 ± 3.15 unit vs 3.73 ± 4.21 unit, MD-1.16 unit, 95%CI − 2.06 units to − 0.26 units, p = 0.002). The bleeding and transfusion outcomes were comparable between the ulinastatin group and the tranexamic acid group. In-hospital outcomes and 10-year follow-up showed no statistical difference in mortality and major morbidity among groups.

Conclusions

Ulinastatin reduced post-operative blood loss and allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion in heart surgery with CPB. The mortality and major morbidity was comparable among the groups shown by the 10-year follow-up.