Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery without Blood Transfusion; Is It Possible?

Niger J Clin Pract. 2021 Jan;24(1):59-63

Background

Coronary artery bypass surgery is the most commonly performed cardiac operation and approximately 40-70% of patients require a blood transfusion despite improvements in cardiac surgical techniques. Some preventive perfusion methods to avoid transfusions are described, such as acute normovolemic hemodilution, retrograde autologous priming, and usage of integrated arterial filter oxygenator.

Aims

We combined these three techniques (triple combination technique) to evaluate whether it is possible to avoid blood transfusions in adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

Materials and Methods

A total of 300 consecutive patients were included in this randomized controlled trial. 150 patients (Group 1) were operated with triple combination technique, The other 150 patients (Group 2) were operated with standard cardiopulmonary bypass technique. The two groups were compared in terms of peroperative and postoperative blood product use.

Results

Ninety-two percent (92%) of the patients (Group 1) undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery did not require any blood transfusion. Only 8% of the patients required erythrocyte suspension or fresh frozen plasma transfusion. In Group 2, 58% of patients required blood transfusions. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p < 0,05).

Conclusion

Triple combination technique is safe and cost-effective in coronary artery bypass surgery. We think that most of the patients could be operated without blood transfusion with this technique.