Computational Numerical Analysis of Different Cannulation Methods During Cardiopulmonary Bypass of Type A Aortic Dissection Model Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

Ann Transl Med. 2021 Apr;9(8):667

Background

The aim of the present study was to use a numerical simulation based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the difference of different cannulation methods on hemodynamics characteristic in a type A aortic dissection (TAAD) model.

Methods

A finite-element analysis based on the CFD model of a TAAD patient was used, and axillary artery cannulation (AAC), innominate artery cannulation (IAC), and femoral artery cannulation (FAC) were analyzed under different situations, including a cardiac output (CO) of 2.5 L/min and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) of 2.5 L/min (partial CPB before cross-clamping aorta, defined as condition A), and a CO of 0 L/min and CPB of 5 L/min (aortic cross-clamping phase, defined as condition B). The insertion of an 8-mm cannula into the different models was simulated. Hemodynamic characteristics, including wall shear stress, wall stress, blood flow, and velocity were analyzed.

Results

In condition A, the total flow of branches of the aortic arch was 2,009.5 mL/min (AAC), 1,855.47 mL/min (IAC), and 1,648.03 mL/min (FAC). All cannulation methods improved left renal blood perfusion. However, in relation to blood flow in the right renal artery, FAC showed the highest blood flow (105 mL/min). The results in condition B were similar to those of condition A. The velocity, shear stress, and stress of entry tear via AAC and IAC decreased in condition B compared with condition A. The velocity, shear stress, stress of tear via AAC was lower than that of IAC.

Conclusions

Different cannulation modes have an effect on the hemodynamic characteristic of the tear, but this effect is related to different states of CPB. AAC was found to superior to IAC, especially in reducing velocity, stress, and shear stress of site of tear. However, IAC and AAC are more conductive to blood supply than FAC in branch vessels of the aortic arch without being affected by the CPB state.