Coagulation Profile of Neonates Undergoing Arterial Switch Surgery With Crystalloid Priming of the Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuit

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2021 Aug 8. Online ahead of print

Objectives

The aim was to evaluate changes in the coagulation profile of cyanotic neonates, to analyze the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with crystalloid priming on their coagulation status, and to determine factors predicting a requirement for hemostasis-derived transfusion.

Design

Retrospective cohort.

Setting

Single-center, tertiary academic hospital.

Participants

In total, 100 consecutive neonates who underwent arterial switch surgery between December 2014 and June 2020.

Interventions

Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and coagulation parameters before surgery and before termination of CPB were evaluated. Transfusion of platelets, fresh frozen plasma, and fibrinogen, defined as hemostasis-derived transfusion (HD transfusion), were determined. Patients with and without HD transfusion were compared to identify predictors.

Measurements and Main Results

After CPB, fibrinogen was reduced by 24.5% (interquartile range [IQR] 8.9-32.1) to 201 mg/dL (IQR 172-249), resulting in a reduction of FIBTEM A10 by 20% (1.8-33.3) to 8 mm (6-11). The platelet count decreased by a median of 47.2% (25.6-61.3) to 162 × 103/µL (119-215). However, the median fibrinogen concentration and platelet count remained within normal range. Neonates with abnormal ROTEM results were more likely to receive HD transfusions. The HD transfusions were more likely with lower preoperative FIBTEM maximum clot firmness values (p = 0.031), lower hemoglobin concentrations at termination of CPB (p = 0.02), and longer CPB duration (p = 0.017). Perioperative hemostasis without any HD transfusion was achieved in 64 neonates.

Conclusions

Guidance from ROTEM analyses facilitates hemostasis management after neonatal CPB. Circuit miniaturization with transfusion-free CPB is associated with acceptable changes in ROTEM in most patients, and allows sufficient hemostasis without any HD transfusions in most patients.

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