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Early Motor Outcomes in Infants with Critical Congenital Heart Disease are Related to Neonatal Brain Development and Brain Injury

Neonatal brain development and injury are associated with fewer favourable early motor outcomes in infants with CCHD.

Machine for cardiopulmonary bypass

The Albumin-to-Fibrinogen Ratio Independently Predicts Acute Kidney Injury in Infants With Ventricular Septal Defect Undergoing Cardiac Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass

This study demonstrated that a low AFR (<9.35) during CPB was an independent risk factor for AKI in VSD infants following cardiac surgery with CPB.


Centrifugal and Roller Pumps in Neonatal & Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

A total of four studies with 9111 patients were included. There was a statistically significant difference in in-hospital mortality, favoring the groups where roller pumps were used. Roller pumps were associated with fewer episodes of hemolysis, mechanical complications, cardiac complications, renal complications, and less inotropic support. ECMO with roller pumps may be associated with lower mortality in children. Roller pumps were associated with fewer complications, as well as reduced hemolysis and use of inotropes.


Evaluation of Seizure Risk in Infants After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in the Absence of Deep Hypothermic Cardiac Arrest

Seizure incidence was similar to recent estimates even in the absence of deep hypothermic cardiac arrest. By employing random forest analysis, we were able to identify novel risk factors for postoperative seizure in this population and generate a robust model of seizure risk. Further work to validate our model in an external population is needed.

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Use Of Bivalirudin for Anticoagulation in Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

This study describes the use of bivalirudin in children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Pediatric patients receiving bivalirudin were compared to patients receiving heparin as the anticoagulant on ECMO. Bivalirudin may provide stable and successful anticoagulation in children. Further large, multicenter studies are needed to confirm these finding

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Sequestration of Dexmedetomidine in Ex Vivo Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits

The percent sequestration of DEX was lower in CPB circuits at lower DEX doses compared to higher doses. A combination of DEX initial loading dose and continuous infusion resulted in steady concentrations of DEX over 4 hours. At therapeutically relevant concentrations of DEX (485–1,013 pg/ml), lower sequestration was observed in ex vivo CPB circuits compared to higher doses. The sequestration of DEX to circuits should be considered to achieve the optimal concentration of DEX during CPB surgery.

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Nomenclature for Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Care: Unification of Clinical and Administrative Nomenclature – The 2021 International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) and the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11)

In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.

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The Lower Threshold of Hypothermic Oxygen Delivery to Prevent Neonatal Acute Kidney Injury

The importance of hypothermic DO2i should be highlighted, even when SvO2 was satisfactory. A lower threshold of DO2i > 269 mL min−1 m−2 may help protect neonates from the risk of postoperative AKI.

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Impact on Renal Function and Hospital Outcomes of an Individualized Management of Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Congenital Heart Surgery: A Pilot Study

A safe individualized strategy for conduction of CPB, which allows significant flow reduction while maintaining normal hemodynamic and metabolic parameters, does not impact on renal function and hospital outcomes.


Cefazolin Prophylaxis in Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery with the Use of Cardiopulmonary Bypass-Is the Dosing Correct?

Direct extrapolation of antibiotic prophylaxis recommendations from adults to children may result in suboptimal antibiotic concentrations. An additional cefazolin dose to ECC priming appears necessary and the dosing should be based on ECC priming volume rather than on the weight of the patient.

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Adverse Outcomes Prediction for Congenital Heart Surgery: A Machine Learning Approach

The nonlinear ML-based models of OCTs are intuitively interpretable and provide superior predictive power. The associated risk calculator allows easy, accurate, and understandable estimation of individual patient risks, in the theoretical framework of the average performance of all centers represented in the database. This methodology has the potential to facilitate decision-making and resource optimization in CHS, enabling total quality management and precise benchmarking initiatives.


Similar Frequency of Atrial Perforation Between Atrial and Bicaval Dual Lumen Veno-Venous ECMO Cannulas in A Pediatric Population

There were no significant differences in frequency of pericardial effusions or severe cannula-related complications between the treatment groups across all pediatric patients and within the subgroup of patients under 2 years of age.

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Transfusion Practices in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Requiring Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Secondary Analysis of a Clinical Database

Children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery are transfused many blood components both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Multiple blood components are transfused intraoperatively at seemingly normal/low-normal pretransfusion values. Pediatric evidence guiding blood component transfusion in this population at high risk of bleeding and with limited physiologic reserve is needed to advance safe and effective blood conservation practices.

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Oxidative Stress Response in Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: Utility of the Clearance of Isoprostanes

Children undergoing CS, particularly neonatal patients, experience a significant post-operative OS response that might play an important role in postoperative morbidity. TGA patients undergoing arterial switch operations demonstrate the highest post-operative OS response. Rapid clearance of isoprostanes, which occurs more frequently in older patients with more mature antioxidant systems, might be associated with better clinical outcomes.


Procalcitonin and Early Postoperative Infection After Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery

In light of this preliminary result, the clinical relevance and predictive accuracy of PCT are promising in patients with increasing values of PCT but need to be confirmed in a larger sample.


The Use of Thromboelastography (TEG) and Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in Neonates: A Systematic Review

TEG and ROTEM need to become part of the standard coagulation assessment in clinical settings in which hemostatic abnormalities are involved, as they seem to provide more rapid and accurate information regarding the hemostatic profile of the neonates. Their predictive value for bleeding events in critically ill neonates could lead to a more targeted therapy optimizing utilization of blood products.

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Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuit Blood Prime Quality Analysis

Attention to the prime quality beyond the immediate post-priming period may be beneficial. Should the time period between validation of the prime quality and initiation of bypass be extended, it may be advisable to reevaluate the prime quality.

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Neonatal Respiratory and Cardiac ECMO in Europe

ECMO is a life support with a potential impact on long-term patients’ outcomes. In the next years, advances in knowledge, technology, and expertise may push neonatal ECMO boundaries towards more premature and increasingly complex infants, with the final aim to reduce the burden of ECMO-related complications and improve overall patients’ outcomes.

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SubZero Balance – Simple Modified Ultrafiltration (SBUF-SMUF) Technique for Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass

The novel combination of a continuous and non-continuous form of ultrafiltration, Subzero Balance Simple Modified Ultrafiltration (SBUF-SMUF) here described, seeks to enhance recovery from pediatric cardiac surgery and CPB.


Initial Experience with del Nido Cardioplegia Solution at a Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Surgery Program in Brazil

In our congenital cardiac surgery population, del Nido cardioplegia strategy was associated with less ventricular dysfunction with LCOS, a lower VIS and decreased ICU LOS compared with patients that received our standard myocardial protection using a modified St. Thomas’ solution. Despite the limitation of this study, including its retrospective nature and cohort size, these data supported our transition to incorporate del Nido cardioplegia solution with a mandatory reperfusion period as the preferred myocardial protection method in our program.

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Scavenging Right Atrial Bretschneider Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate Cardioplegia: Impact on Hyponatremia and Seizures in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients

Right atrial effluent scavenging was protective against fluctuations in serum sodium levels after crossclamp and Custodiol-HTK cardioplegia administration independently in both entire and matched cohort, and was also associated with decreased incidence of postoperative seizures.

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Anticoagulation and Transfusion Management During Neonatal and Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Survey of Medical Directors in the United States

Compared with the 2013 pediatric population, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center anticoagulation and blood transfusion approaches continue to vary widely. Most report continued use of heparin as their primary anticoagulant and follow a combination of monitoring assays with the majority using the antifactor Xa assay in their practices, a significant shift from prior results. Antithrombin activity levels and viscoelastic tests are followed by a growing number of centers. Platelet transfusion thresholds continue to vary widely. Future research is needed to establish optimal anticoagulation and blood transfusion management.

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Postoperative Cerebral Oxygen Saturation in Children After Congenital Cardiac Surgery and Long-Term Total Intelligence Quotient: A Prospective Observational Study

Increased dose of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation desaturation and reduced mean cerebral tissue oxygen saturation during the early postoperative period independently increase the probability of having a lower total intelligence quotient, 2 years after PICU admission.


Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Assessment of Tissue Oxygenation During Selective Cerebral Perfusion for Neonatal Aortic Arch Reconstruction

SCP under mild hypothermia can aid in efficient maintenance of brain perfusion during neonatal arch reconstruction. The clinical outcome of this strategy was favorable for up to 20 min, but the safety duration of lower body ischemia warrants further analysis.