Search Results

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Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Perioperative Assessment and Neonatal Interventions

We identified areas for future research within disease-specific indications and offer a roadmap to aid in developing evidence-based targeted diagnostic and management strategies in neonates.

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Noninvasive Optical Measurement of Microvascular Cerebral Hemodynamics and Autoregulation in the Neonatal ECMO Patient

Our pilot results suggest that systemic measures alone cannot distinguish impaired CA from intact CA during ECMO. Furthermore, optical neuromonitoring could help determine patient-specific ECMO pump flows for optimal CA integrity, thereby reducing risk of secondary brain injury.

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Left Heart Decompression on Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Children With Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Myocarditis: An Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry Review

Retrospective review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry revealed an association between left heart decompression and greater odds of survival in children with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. When comparing patients with dilated cardiomyopathy against those with myocarditis, we could not exclude a three-fold greater odds of survival associated with the use of left heart decompression. This finding warrants further prospective evaluation.

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Pediatric ECMO: Unfavorable Outcomes Are Associated with Inflammation and Endothelial Activation

High levels of circulating inflammatory, endothelial activation, and fibrinolytic markers are associated with mortality and abnormal neuroimaging in children on ECMO.

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Association Between Exogenous Nitric Oxide Given During Cardiopulmonary Bypass and the Incidence of Postoperative Kidney Injury in Children

This single-center, retrospective, cohort study found no change in the incidence and severity of postoperative AKI after the administration of nitric oxide into the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit in children.

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The Effect of Selective Cerebral Perfusion on Cerebral versus Somatic Tissue Oxygenation During Aortic Coarctation Repair in Neonates and Infants

SctO2 and SstO2 have distinct patterns of changes before and after aortic opening during neonate/infant aortic coarctation repair. SctO2/SstO2’s correlations with MAP and PaCO2 are confounded by SCP. The outcome impact of combined SctO2/SstO2 monitoring remains to be studied.

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Efficacy and Safety of Aprotinin in Paediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

This meta-analysis suggests that aprotinin is effective and well tolerated in paediatric cardiac surgery. Given the large heterogeneity of the results and the risk of selection bias in observational studies, large randomised controlled trials are warranted.

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Impact of Arterial Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Content on Cerebral Autoregulation Monitoring Among Children Supported by ECMO

We observed a complex relationship between PaCO2 and CA, influenced by the level of blood pressure. Hypercapnia seems to be globally protective in normotensive or hypertensive condition, while, in case of very low MAP, hypercapnia may disturb CA as it increases LLA. These data add additional arguments for very cautiously lower PaCO2, especially after ECMO start.

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Antifibrinolytic Drugs for the Prevention of Bleeding in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery on Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

The available data demonstrate efficacy for all 3 antifibrinolytic drugs. Therefore, the agent with the most favorable safety profile should be used. As sufficient data are lacking, large comparative trials are warranted to assess the relative safety and appropriate dosing regimens in pediatrics.

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Methylprednisolone in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Is There Enough Evidence?

MP may provide a small benefit that is easily abolished by patient characteristics, surgical techniques, and perfusion management. The lack of evidence leads to large differences in practice between and within countries, and even within hospitals, so

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Interrelations of Intraoperative Changes in Cerebral Tissue Oxygen Saturation with Brain Volumes and Neurodevelopment Outcome After the Comprehensive Stage II Procedure in Infants With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

The correlation between ScerebO2 and brain volumes measured by MRI pointed out a possible importance of neuroprotective strategies aimed at optimizing ScerebO2 during complex congenital heart surgery. That no correlation between ScerebO2 and Bayley III Score was found suggested multifactorial causes for neurologic outcome in children with congenital heart defects.

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Bi-Caval Dual Lumen Catheter for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

Chest X-ray and transthoracic echocardiography showed good catheter positioning, and the recirculation rate was also dramatically decreased to 0%. The patient continuously received treatment for ARDS under the dependence of VV-ECMO.

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Strategies to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury after Pediatric Cardiac Surgery – A Network Meta-Analysis

Current evidence from randomized controlled trials does not support the efficacy of most strategies to prevent AKI in the pediatric population, apart from limited evidence for dexmedetomidine and remote ischemic preconditioning.

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Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Neurogenesis and Cortical Maturation

Our results provide novel insights into cellular mechanisms contributing to CHD-induced neurological impairments. Further refinement of CPB hardware and techniques is necessary to improve long-term frontal cortical dysmaturation observed in children with CHD.

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Early Biochemical Markers in the Assessment of Acute Kidney Injury in Children after Cardiac Surgery

We showed that plasma CysC and urinary NGAL could reliably predict the development of acute kidney injury. Measurement of early biochemical markers in plasma and urine, individually and combination, may predict the development of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury in children.

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Calcium Chloride Infusions are Not Associated with Improved Outcomes in Neonates Undergoing Cardiac Operations

Calcium chloride infusions in neonates who underwent cardiac surgery did not decrease exposure to other inotropic and vasoactive agents in the first 24 post-operative hours or improve patient outcomes.

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Biomarkers for Adverse Lung Injury Following Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Multiple proteomic biomarkers were associated with worse respiratory outcomes. Precardiopulmonary bypass biomarkers might indicate risk factors (e.g., abnormalities of coagulation), whereas those identified at 0 hour and post cardiopulmonary bypass may reflect mechanisms of ongoing pathobiology.

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Timing of Congenital Cardiac Surgery in Children who Turned COVID-19 Positive

We conclude that children with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 disease may be subjected to surgery as early as within 1 week since COVID-19 negative.

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A Communication Guide for Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

The communication framework presented can be adapted to unique institutional and clinical settings. Future research is required to investigate utility and potential barriers to implementation. We anticipate that structured conversations during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support will facilitate clear expectations toward a common treatment goal, foster therapeutic relationships, ensure clinician alignment and consistent language, mitigate communication gaps, support bereavement, and minimize conflict.

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Methylprednisolone Plasma Concentrations During Cardiac Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Patients

We report similar methylprednisolone plasma concentrations as earlier studies performed in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, and we confirmed the large interindividual variability in achieved methylprednisolone plasma concentrations with weight-based methylprednisolone administration. A larger volume of distribution and a lower clearance of methylprednisolone for neonates were suggested. The half-life of methylprednisolone in our study was calculated to be longer than 6 h for neonates, 4.7 h for infants, 3.6 h for preschool children and 4.7 h for school children. The possible influence of treatment of pulmonary hypertension with sildenafil and temperature needs to be investigated further.

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ultrafiltration

Safety and Utility of Modified Ultrafiltration in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

Complete MUF enables the clinician to safely raise the post-CPB hematocrit to at least 40% while potentially removing mediators that could result in SIRS. In addition a full unit of FFP can be administered while maintaining euvolemia.

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Coagulation Profile of Neonates Undergoing Arterial Switch Surgery With Crystalloid Priming of the Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuit

Guidance from ROTEM analyses facilitates hemostasis management after neonatal CPB. Circuit miniaturization with transfusion-free CPB is associated with acceptable changes in ROTEM in most patients, and allows sufficient hemostasis without any HD transfusions in most patients.

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C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin after Congenital Heart Surgery Utilizing Cardiopulmonary Bypass: When Should We Be Worried?

Both CRP and PCT increase after CHS with CPB and peak on postoperative day 2. PCT has a greater statistically significant difference in those with documented infection when compared to CRP and a PCT of greater than 5.6 ng/ml should raise suspicion for infection.

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Preoperative Anemia and Outcomes After Corrective Surgery in Neonates With Dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries

Untreated preoperative anemia was not associated with adverse outcomes in neonates undergoing reparative surgery for d-TGA.