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COVID-19

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for COVID-19: Evolving Outcomes from the International Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry

Mortality after ECMO for patients with COVID-19 worsened during 2020. These findings inform the role of ECMO in COVID-19 for patients, clinicians, and policy makers.

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Anesthetic Management of Successful Extracorporeal Resuscitation After Six Hours of Cardiac Arrest Due to Severe Accidental Hypothermia

The case of a patient who experienced cardiac arrest due to severe AH and was resuscitated for more than six hours using extracorporeal life support recently was published. Herein that case is reviewed, with the anesthetic management during cannulation detailed.

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Clinical Characteristics Between Survivors and Nonsurvivors of COVID-19 Patients Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Support: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

We found advanced age, multiple comorbidities, lower pre-ECMO pH, greater RRT, and vasopressor requirements, and bleeding are predictors of death in COVID-19 patients requiring ECMO support. The duration of MV before ECMO support initiation and total ECMO support duration was similar among survivors and nonsurvivors. Our study results have important clinical implications when considering ECMO support in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

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Management and Outcomes of Cardiogenic Shock in Cardiac ICUs With Versus Without Shock Teams

In this multicenter observational study, centers with shock teams were more likely to obtain invasive hemodynamics, use advanced types of MCS, and have lower risk-adjusted mortality. A standardized multidisciplinary shock team approach may improve outcomes in CS.

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Bi-Caval Dual Lumen Catheter for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

Chest X-ray and transthoracic echocardiography showed good catheter positioning, and the recirculation rate was also dramatically decreased to 0%. The patient continuously received treatment for ARDS under the dependence of VV-ECMO.

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Nitrogen Oxide-Added Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Treating Critical Acute Heart Failure after Cardiac Surgery

For the first time, venoarterial ECMO with supply of gaseous nitric oxide into the extracorporeal circuit was used to support blood circulation after cardiac surgery. This made it possible to ensure the survival of the patient with critical ischemia-reperfusion injury developed after the surgery.

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Beneficial Effect of Prone Positioning During Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Coronavirus Disease 2019

Our study highlights that prone positioning during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for refractory coronavirus disease 2019-related acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with reduced mortality. Given the observational nature of the study, a randomized controlled trial of prone positioning on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is needed to confirm these findings.

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Effects of Rewarming with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation to Restore Oxygen Transport and Organ Blood Flow after Hypothermic Cardiac Arrest in A Porcine Model

Thus, like continuous CPR, ECMO rewarming plays a crucial role in “the chain of survival” when resuscitating victims of hypothermic cardiac arrest.

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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Jehovah’s Witness Patients: Case Report, Literature Review, and Summary of Recommendations

We describe the use of a bloodless approach to reduce the waste of blood, avoiding anticoagulation, and improving red blood cell production. We then summarize the current literature on the use of ECMO in Jehovah’s Witness patients and, fi

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One-Year Functional, Cognitive, and Psychological Outcomes Following the Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Prospective Study

Functional impairment was common a year following the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in coronavirus disease 2019, although the majority achieved independence in daily living and about half returned to work. Long-term anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder were common, but cognitive impairment was not.

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Delirium and Long-Term Outcomes among Survivors of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy: A Nationwide Cohort Study in South Korea

The prevalence of delirium among ECMO survivors during hospitalization was 6.8% in South Korea, and old age, male sex, longer duration of hospital stay, and underlying depression were associated with it. However, there was no significant association between delirium and 1-year all-cause mortality among ECMO survivors.

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Argatroban for Anticoagulation in Patients Requiring Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Coronavirus Disease 2019

Argatroban, with or without aspirin, is an effective anticoagulation strategy for patients who require venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support secondary to coronavirus disease 2019. In comparison with heparin, this anticoagulation strategy was not associated with a significant difference in bleeding or thrombotic complications, and was associated with a significantly decreased time to therapeutic anticoagulation goal, likely as a result of high rates of heparin resistance observed in this patient population.

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International Survey of Neuromonitoring and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Children and Adults Supported on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Europe

This survey demonstrated significant variability in the use of different neuromonitoring modalities during and after ECMO. The perceived importance of neuromonitoring and follow-up was noted to be very high with agreement for a longitudinal structured follow-up programme, particularly in paediatric patients. Scientific society endorsed guidelines and minimum standards should be developed to inform local protocols.

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A Communication Guide for Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

The communication framework presented can be adapted to unique institutional and clinical settings. Future research is required to investigate utility and potential barriers to implementation. We anticipate that structured conversations during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support will facilitate clear expectations toward a common treatment goal, foster therapeutic relationships, ensure clinician alignment and consistent language, mitigate communication gaps, support bereavement, and minimize conflict.

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Impact of Left Ventricular Unloading Using A Peripheral Impella®-Pump in eCPR Patients

Concomitant Impella® support might positively influence survival and ECMO weaning in eCPR patients. Treatment-associated complications such as the need for dialysis were more common in this highly selected patient group. Further studies with larger numbers are necessary to evaluate the clinical relevance of concomitant LV-unloading in eCPR patients using an Impella® device.

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Acute Kidney Injury in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients: National Analysis of Impact of Age

AKI is common and is increasing among patients on ECMO support. Patients on ECMO have high mortality and AKI is an independent predictor of mortality. Though age is also an independent predictor of mortality in patients on ECMO, it is neither a predictor of AKI nor does not modify the relationship between AKI and mortality.

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Implementation and Outcomes of a Mobile Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Program in the United States During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic

Herein, the implementation of the mobile ECMO team is reviewed, and patient characteristics and outcomes are described.

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Applications and Outcomes of Extracorporeal Life Support Use in Adult Liver Transplantation: A Case Series and Review of Literature

There is evidence for consideration of ECLS as a bridge to LT in patients with potentially reversible respiratory failure or as rescue therapy for respiratory failure in posttransplant patients. ECLS has a prohibitively high risk of futility in pretransplant patients with cardiac failure but may have a role in LT patients with a functioning graft and potentially reversible cardiac failure.

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Effect of Acute Limb Ischemia on the Mortality of Patients with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Established by Femoral Vein-Arterial Catheterization and Analysis of Related Risk Factors

Although ALI is not significantly associated with VA-ECMO in-hospital mortality, it is a risk factor for mortality at 6 months after discharge, and medical personnel should therefore strive to reduce and avoid ALI.

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Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Guidelines for Follow-up After Neonatal and Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

Thus, ECMO centers should adapt follow-up program to their specific populations and resources with the predischarge and postdischarge c

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Simple and Effective Blood Salvage Technique for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit

We describe a simplified technique to salvage the blood in the ECMO circuit that requires no special equipment, is safe, and maximizes blood salvage.

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How to Turn It Down: The Evidence and Opinions Behind Adult Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Weaning

We have reviewed the literature to summarize the evidence and expert opinions behind VA ECMO weaning, and give an example of the protocol used at our center. We believe this protocol optimizes patient selection for weaning and helps to predict successful decannulation.

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Acute Kidney Injury During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: VA ECMO Versus VV ECMO

Although mortality rates related to AKI/severe AKI during VV ECMO are high, the occurrence of AKI/severe AKI during VA ECMO should be given greater attention, as these instances are considered strong indicators of patient deterioration and even death. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these findings.

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Cerebral Microemboli during Extracorporeal Life Support: A Single-Centre Cohort Study

Our results indicate that adult ECLS patients are continuously exposed to many gaseous and, frequently, to few solid cerebral microemboli. Prolonged cerebral microemboli formation may contribute to neurological morbidity related to ECLS treatment.