Can Upper Extremity (Deltoid) Near Infrared Spectroscopy be Used to Assess Cerebral Tissue Bed Saturation on Femorally Cannulated Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patients?

Perfusion. 2020 Jun 24. Online ahead of print

The use of upper extremity (peripheral deltoid) tissue monitoring does not provide adequate correlation and should not be used as a surrogate to cerebral monitoring.

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Continuous cerebral tissue saturation monitoring with near infrared spectroscopy may help clinicians identify cerebral desaturation early; however, patients have reported discomfort from near infrared spectroscopy monitoring pads on the forehead. This study aims to compare upper extremity near infrared spectroscopy monitoring to cerebral near infrared spectroscopy monitoring to assess its viability as a surrogate for cerebral saturation. A retrospective analysis of 10 femorally cannulated veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients was performed comparing left (L) and right (R) upper extremity (deltoid) near infrared spectroscopy monitoring to cerebral near infrared spectroscopy monitoring (n = 20 data sets, 10 left and 10 right) and right radial blood gasses. Deltoid and cerebral near infrared spectroscopy values were recorded every 15 minutes for at least 24 hours when possible, were plotted on scatter grams, and were analyzed using Pearson product-moment coefficient (r). Based on the concept of covariance, a moderate-good relationship r = 0.50-0.75 was noted in 10% (n = 2) of the study group. A fair relationship r = 0.25-0.50 was noted in 50% (n = 10), and little or no relationship was noted in 40% (n = 8). None of the study group displayed a good to excellent relationship (r = 0.75 or above). In addition, coefficient of multiple determination for multiple regression R2 was calculated and strong fit of the regression line was not noted. Although cerebral near infrared spectroscopy monitoring has been extremely helpful in identifying low cerebral tissue saturation on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients, the use of upper extremity (peripheral deltoid) tissue monitoring does not provide adequate correlation and should not be used as a surrogate to cerebral monitoring.