Optimizing Cerebral Perfusion and Hemodynamics During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Through Cannula Design Combining In Silico, In Vitro And In Vivo Input

From this we propose another easy-to-manufacture cannula design (opti2CAN) that decreases areas burdened by high WSS, while preserving physiological cerebral flow and favorable hemodynamics. With this novel cannula design, we propose a cannulation option to reduce neurological complications and the prevalence of stroke in high-risk patients after CPB.

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Balanced Forced-Diuresis as A Renal Protective Approach in Cardiac Surgery: Secondary Outcomes of Electrolyte Changes

Balanced forced-diuresis with the RG reduced AKI rates after on-pump cardiac surgery compared to controls. Although the RG group required higher doses of IV potassium replacement in the postoperative period, normal serum levels of potassium were maintained by appropriate intravenous potassium supplementation and the clinical outcomes between groups were similar.

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Survey of Practice Pattern in Patients With Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Requiring Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Most responding SCA and AmSECT members reported that their institution used a protocol or guideline for HIT/CPB cases, and most guidelines directed the use of bivalirudin as an alternative anticoagulant. Various other methods such as plasmapheresis are also being used with success in this patient population. Further research, including comparison studies of alternative anticoagulant strategies, is required to elucidate the best approach to these difficult cases.

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Comparison of the Effects of Ringer’s Lactate and 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 on Blood Loss and Need for Blood Transfusion After Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Cardiac Surgery

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Crystalloids (RL) provide similar outcomes to HES and can be used as substitutes to colloids during cardiac surgery. However, further large-scale multicenter studies with varied indications can be suggested to substantiate the equivalence of crystalloids to colloids in perioperative management.

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An Update From The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Workforce on Evidence-Based Surgery: Improving the Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines

Indirect evidence on the impact of CPGs may also be derived from observing temporal trends in practice patterns and outcomes before and after publication of CPGs. A better understanding of when, how, and how completely CPGs are implemented in various practice settings is currently lacking, and more research is needed to address existing hurdles in implementation of CPGs.

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Patient Blood Management and Blood Conservation – Complimentary Concepts and Solutions for Blood Establishments and Clinical Services in South Africa and Beyond

In this article, we hope to convey the message that PBM and blood conservation should not be seen as competing concepts, but rather complimentary strategies with the common goal of improving patient care. This offers opportunity to improve the culture of transfusion practices with relief to blood establishments and clinical services, not only in South Africa and LMICs, but everywhere. With the COVID-19 pandemic impacting blood supplies worldwide, this is an ideal time to call for educational interventions and awareness as an active strategy to improve transfusion practices, immed

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Elimination of CO2 Insufflation-Induced Hypercapnia in Open Heart Surgery Using an Additional Venous Reservoir

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An additional venous reservoir for the evacuation of blood from the open surgical wound eliminates CO2 insufflation-induced hypercapnia in open heart surgery keeping PaCO2 and sweep gas flow constant. This prevents possible CO2-induced hyperperfusion of the brain and decreases the risk of cerebral particulate embolization during CO2 insufflation for de-airing in open heart surgery.

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Acute Kidney Injury and Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Review on Multiple Organ Support Options

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The combination of CRRT and ECMO can be considered a form of multiple organ support therapy, but this approach still requires optimization in timing, set-up, anticoagulation, prescription and delivery. The aim of this report is to review the pathophysiology of AKI, the CRRT delivery, anticoagulation strategies and outcomes of patients with AKI treated with ECMO.

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The Association of Matrix Metalloproteinases With Acute Kidney Injury Following CPB-Supported Cardiac Surgery

Although the pilot study may have limitations, it has demonstrated that the serum and urine levels of activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 are associated with the clinical endpoint of AKI and appear to have earlier rising levels as compared with those of serum creatinine. Furthermore, in depth, exploration is underway with a larger sample size to attempt validation of the analytical performance and reproducibility of the assay for MMP-2 and MMP-9 to aid in earlier diagnosis of AKI following CPB-supported cardiac surgery.

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Centrifugal and Roller Pumps in Neonatal & Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

A total of four studies with 9111 patients were included. There was a statistically significant difference in in-hospital mortality, favoring the groups where roller pumps were used. Roller pumps were associated with fewer episodes of hemolysis, mechanical complications, cardiac complications, renal complications, and less inotropic support. ECMO with roller pumps may be associated with lower mortality in children. Roller pumps were associated with fewer complications, as well as reduced hemolysis and use of inotropes.

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Dynamic and Hybrid Configurations for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

We concluded that dynamic or hybrid ECMO configurations were used in various underlying diseases, in which V-AV was most commonly used. Patients receiving VV ECMO for respiratory support initially, who then converted to other configurations for both respiratory and circulatory support, had significantly worst outcomes among the groups studied. The initial configuration should be selected carefully after thorough assessment of patient condition.

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