In this randomized controlled trial, intraoperative normoxia did not reduce postoperative cognitive dysfunction when compared to intraoperative hyperoxia in older patients having cardiac surgery. Although the optimal intraoperative oxygenation strategy remains uncertain, the results indicate that intraoperative hyperoxia does not worsen postoperative cognition after cardiac surgery.

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We have developed a finite element computational fluid dynamics model incorporating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) that incorporates atrial deformation during atrial filling and emptying, with fluid flow solved using large eddy simulation. With this model, we have evaluated an extensive number of factors that could influence recirculation during two-site VV ECMO, and characterized their impact on recirculation, including cannula construction, insertion depth and orientation, VV ECMO configuration, circuit blood flow, and changes in volume, venous return, heart rate, and blood viscosity.

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The use of a bloodless protocol for Jehovah’s Witnesses does not appear to significantly impact upon clinical outcomes when compared to non-Witness patients, and it has even been suggested that a bloodless approach could provide advantages to all patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Larger cohorts and research across multiple centres into the long term outcomes of these patients is required.

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This study will compare the efficacy of prophylactic corticosteroids for adults and children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. Due to the nature of the disease and intervention methods, randomized controlled trials may be inadequate, and we will carefully consider inclusion in high-quality, non-randomized controlled trials, but this may result in high heterogeneity and affect the reliability of the results.

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